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Bosnian War Dayton Agreement

For the most part, the Bosnian territory was divided into two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska. Although each unit is highly decentralized, it was agreed that Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole would be governed by a constitution and a national government with a rotating presidency, as stipulated in the terms of the agreement. Dayton`s current implementation policy is flawed because of the refusal of the NATO-led International Force (SFOR) to fulfil its mandate and be responsible for implementation, despite clear authorization to do so in accordance with the provisions of the agreement. In addition, two of the three ethnic groups are actively opposed to Dayton and ready to await the withdrawal of the international community and restore the agreement to calm. If it is not possible to break the current impasse, the only great success of the agreement – peace – will be increasingly threatened. Although peace has been a dignified and admirable goal, it is the promise of the implementation of certain key principles and the creation of a unified state that notably invited Bosnians to sign the agreement in 1995. Unlike the Serbs and Croats, they called for greater implementation of all Dayton annexes in the three ethnic areas. The failure of the current policy of ensuring full implementation could trigger new fighting, especially when the international community begins to withdraw. As the Madrid Enforcement Council stated in 1998, “The structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina remains fragile. Without the scaffolding of international support, it would collapse. In late August 1995, following an attack by Bosnian Serbs in Sarajevo, NATO carried out airstrikes against Serb positions.

On 1 September, Holbrooke announced that all parties would meet in Geneva to discuss. When the Bosnian Serbs did not meet all NATO conditions, NATO airstrikes resumed. On 14 September, Holbrooke successfully concluded an agreement signed by Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadsai and Ratko Mladis to end the siege of Sarajevo and oversee final peace talks to begin in Dayton, Ohio. The most serious threat to peace signed this week comes from the Bosnian Serbs, who not only publicly denounced the agreement, but privately refused to open either the map or the military annexes to the long and complex agreement. It was only a few minutes before the announcement of the peace agreement that the Bosnian Serbs were stunned in the delegation when they saw that they had lost the suburbs of Sarajevo and that they were commanding heights they defended during the siege. The agreement was a compromise between the aspirations of the various parties to the war. Against the will of the Serbian and Croatian ultranationalists, it re-established Bosnia as a unitary state and granted the right of return to the victims of ethnic cleansing. Against the will of Bosnian ultranationalists, it adopted federal ethnic structures in which the Republika Srpska (“Serb Republic”) was recognized as a political entity with rights of self-management within Bosnia. In addition, a complex system of power-sharing and minority rights has been established for the country`s three major ethnic groups (“constituent peoples”), thus preventing the Bosnian majority from seeing minorities of vital political importance on their issues.